Monday, December 21, 2015

Great Wall - Wall of Wonder

China Vocabulary

China Vocabulary

Thursday, December 10, 2015

Hour of Code

Image result for hour of code             

Today on class we participated in an "Hour of Code"  Check it out!

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Tuesday, December 8, 2015

Homework for Tuesday, December 8th and Wednesday, December 9th.

Homework for Tuesday, December 8th and Wednesday, December 9th:  Natural Hazards

Thursday, December 3, 2015

GRAPES Project

To All,

We are working on our GRAPES project in class. With GRAPES the students will be analyzing the Geography, Religion, Achievements, Political, Economics, Social Structure (GRAPES) of a civilization. We will begin with a study the United States as an introduction to this unit.

This is the link to the CIA World Factbook

DBQ during the weeks of November 16th - December 3rd

To All,

The Documents for the DBQ:

DBQ during the weeks of November 16th - December 3rd

To All,

We have been working on the district Document Based Question, or DBQ. I have been working through the documents with the students so they can respond to this statement:

Describe why the Neolithic Revolution is considered a turning point in history.

Thursday, October 22, 2015

Iceman WebQuest

Use the links to answer the questions about Otzi so you can learn more about him:

Link 1
1. Where was Otzi discovered?

Link 2
2. Name one of the problems faced in trying to recover Otzi.

Link 3
3. Why did Otzi remain intact?

Link 4
4. When did the iceman live?

Link 5
5. Explain Carbon-Dating.

Link 6
6. What is so special about Otzi?

Link 7
7. How many tattoos does Otzi have?

Link 8
8. How did the iceman die?

Link 9
9. Why was Otzi's axe important?

Link 10
10. Share some info about Otzi's arrows.

Iceman - Tools and Equiptment

Tools and Equipment of
The Iceman
The Iceman had laid down some of his equipment during his stay in the rocky gully, which was free of ice at that time. His bow, axe, a backpack, and a birch bark container were on another ledge and his quiver was on a stone slab. The rest of his equipment was on his person.

The Iceman Carried Provisions in Two Birch Bark Containers.
The axe was the first piece of the Iceman's equipment to be discovered. The haft of the axe is make of yew wood. Almost three-quarters of the blade are embedded in the shafting fork, held in place with birch pitch. The blade is 9.3 cm long, trapeziform in shape, and made of almost pure copper.

The Tisenjoch Axe is the only complete prehistoric axe found to date.
A completely preserved 1.82 m long bow-stave made of yew wood is the largest piece of equipment discovered. The Iceman's bow is clearly an unfinished piece and not yet functional, showing signs of his work in progress.

The Iceman's completely preserved quiver was discovered on a stone slab about 15 feet from the corpse. It was composed of a rectangular chamois hide bag. The piece of hide was seamed together lengthways and along the lower narrow side.

The Iceman's Quiver and Arrows
The quiver contained two arrows that were ready to shoot and twelve rough shafts make of shoots of hard viburnum sapwood. The heads of the arrows are made of sharpened flint, and had been glued with birch tar and bound on using string. The quiver also contained tips of four stag antlers that were tied together with strips of bast. A bent antler point was probably used by the Iceman to skin and gut animals.

The flint dagger, measuring approximately 13.2 cm, was discovered near the mummy. The dagger has a small triangular flint blade, the handle was made of ash, and a string was attached to a notch at the end of the handle. The sheath-like scabbard is made of knotted lime wood bast. It is presumed that a leather eye on the side allowed the sheath to be attached to the Iceman's belt.

Dagger with Wooden Handle and Flint Blade and Scabbard; Retoucheur
One of the more unusual objects included with the Iceman's equipment is a retoucheur. This tool is made of a section of stripped lime tree branch that is straight on one end and sharpened at the other end. A rod was stuck into the medullary canal at the sharpened end. Analyses of the rod shows that it was made of stag antler and had been hardened by firing.
The retoucheur was used for the intricate work in the production of flint tools. When the head of the tool became blunt, it could be sharpened like a pencil. The Iceman's retoucheur is the only known example of its kind.

Several pieces of wood were found on a rocky ledge near the axe and bow. These pieces of wood formed the frame of a backpack. Since the backpack emerged from the melting snow sooner than the body, it was exposed to the effects of sun and wind, deteriorating its condition. An exact reconstruction of the backpack is no longer possible.
The remains of a net were also discovered at the site. The rough mesh was made of lengths of grass. The Iceman's net was probably used to catch birds.

The Iceman's Birch Fungus
On two strips of hide attached to his clothing, the Iceman carried spherical walnut-sized forms made of birch fungus. This birch fungus served a medicinal purpose; the active ingredients of the tree fungus stop bleeding and act as a disinfectant.

Tassle with a Stone Bead
The only object found that could be described as decorative or as an adornment was a tassle with an attached marble bead. The hole in the bead is threaded onto a thong, holding together a bundle of spiral-twisted strips. This hide strip is decorative and possibly served as spare parts for this man of the Copper Age.

One birch bark container was found next to the mummy while a second container was discovered near the backpack. The second birch bark container was blackened on the inside and contained maple leaves embedded with spruce and juniper needles. Particles of wheat, einkorn, and charcoal were also found. The contents suggests that this container was used to carry embers, and that the leaves were used as insulating material.

Maple Leaves Found in the Ember-Carrier Birch Bark Container
The chlorophyll content shows that the maple leaves were freshly picked. Harvested between June and September, it can be concluded that the Iceman died in summer or early autumn.
The Iceman carried a total of 18 different types of wood, using the most appropriate type of wood for each tool. It is apparent that the Iceman had a wide knowledge of the natural resources that were at his disposal, and how best to use them.

The Iceman's
Prehistoric Use of Medicine

The Iceman's Birch Fungus
On two strips of hide, attached to his clothing, the Iceman carried spherical forms made of birch fungus. This birch fungus served a medicinal purpose; the active ingredients of the tree fungus stop bleeding and act as a disinfectant.
Thank You Mr. Sedivy from Highlands Ranch High School

Iceman - Clothing

The Clothing of  The Iceman

Reconstruction of the Iceman with Clothing and Equipment
A few fragments of the Iceman's upper garment, mainly consisting of hide from a domesticated goat, have survived. The shirt was made of long, rectangular strips of skin that were joined by over-sewing on the inside, with animal sinews used as thread. The different colored vertical strips of skin may have been intended as a pattern.

Iceman's Upper Garment - Made from Strips of Goat Hide
No pieces of the shoulders of the garment were recovered, so there is some speculation as to whether the Iceman's shirt had sleeves. The upper garment likely reached down to the Iceman's knees.
Left: Vertical Strips Were Neatly Sewn

              Iceman's Garment Had Been Mended with Rough Stitching
Since there are no sign of fasteners, it is assumed that the Iceman's upper garment was closed with a belt. Fragments of the Iceman's belt, made of calf leather, show that his belt was originally about six feet long, therefore reaching around his hips twice.

The Iceman's Belt
A piece of sewn-on leather formed a small pouch that contained five items including a drill, scraper, and a flint flake. A black mass of tinder fungus filled most of the bag. Traces of pyrites were found indicating that lumps of pyrite were used by the Iceman to create sparks.

The Iceman wore a grass cape to protect himself from rain; Detail of woven grass
The Iceman's cloak was made of long stalks of Alpine grass and was open at the front. The original length is thought to have been about 90 cm and would have covered the Iceman's entire torso and his thighs. Some Alpine shepherds wore grass and straw cloaks for rain protection into the 20th century.

Bearskin headgear was discovered during the second examination of the site. The Iceman's cap was made of the pelt of a brown bear and had two leather thongs attached to the lower rim for the purpose of tying it under the chin.

Iceman's Bearskin Cap and Goat Hide Loincloth
Originally about three feet long, the Iceman's loincloth consisted of long, narrow strips of goat hide joined by over-sewing with animal sinews. The loincloth would have been drawn between the Iceman's legs and fastened at the front and back with a belt.

The Iceman wore leg protection that covered the thighs and lower legs, therefore not really a pair of trousers. The leggings were made of goat hide with a deerskin strap sewn onto one end that could be tied down when doing up the shoes, preventing the leggings from riding up. Similar loincloths and leggings were also worn by North American Indians well into the 19th century.
When Iceman was recovered, the right shoe was still on the mummy's foot. The shoe consists of an oval leather sole with turned up edges that were held in place using a leather thong. A woven net of grass was attached on the inside to hold hay in place acting as protection against the cold.

The Iceman's Shoes
The Iceman's shoe was closed with a leather upper that was attached to the sole using another leather thong. The shaft around the ankle was bound with grass filaments to prevent moisture from getting into his shoes. The soles of the shoes were made of brown bear skin. The uppers were make of deerskin and were closed using shoe laces.

Thank You Mr. Sedivy from Highlands Ranch High School

Iceman - The Discovery

The Iceman
The Iceman was discovered on September 19, 1991 by hikers, Erika and Helmut Simon. As the couple left the marked summer mountain trail on their descent from the Finailspitze, they came upon a gully in the rocks filled with glacier ice and meltwater. The pair discovered a corpse with its head and torso sticking out of the ice, and the nearby remains of a container made of birch bark.
One of the First Photos of the discovery of the Iceman

              Location of the Mummy Near the Tisenjoch
The Iceman was discovered in a 6-foot to 9-foot deep gully in the rocks. The topography had protected the mummy from the force of the glacial ice flowing since the Copper Age, leaving the mummy and his objects more or less in their original location.
At the time of the Iceman's death, approximately the 4th millennium B.C., climatic conditions similar to those of today likely prevailed. However, almost immediately after his death, the iceman along with all of his equipment must have been covered by a layer of snow.

Peaks from left to right: Schalfkogel 3540m, Mutmalsp 3519m,
Hintere Schwärze Cime Nero 3624m, Marzellsp 3500m, Similaun 3597m.
(Elevations approximately 10,500 - 11,000 feet)
Melting of the Glaciers
A small glacier, flowing eastward toward the Niederjochferner, once covered the slightly sloping terrain surrounding the location of the Iceman. Due to warm summers, the melting process had sped up over recent years and reached an unprecedented level by 1991. This process was accelerated further by a heavy precipitation of Saharan dust that tinged the snow and ice fields a yellowish-brown color.

Province of Bolzano Aerial Photo Enhanced with Topographical Map Lines
It was generally assumed that the person discovered had been a victim of a climbing accident in the 20th century - possibly a man named Carlo Capsoni, a music teacher, who had gone missing in the area in 1941.
The day after the discovery, an Austrian rescue team was helicoptered to the site. The team tried to release the corpse from the ice using a pneumatic chisel. As the meltwater continued to drain into the gully, the rescuers worked under water with great difficulty. After about half an hour, the chisel ran out of electricity leaving the corpse only half-freed.

The Iceman After the First Recovery Attempt
The weather was worsening and the team did not have the appropriate tools with them, so the rescue was suspended. An axe blade with its attached haft that was laying on a nearby ledge was taken from the site to prove that the body was more than one-hundred years old.
Meanwhile, rumors about the find began to spread, claiming that the body had head wounds, had been tied up, and had brandmarks on its back. These rumors led to criminal proceedings involoving an examination of the body to determine whether it had been a victim of crime.
The next day, September 21, 1991, two rock climbers, Hans Kammerlander and Reinhold Messner, happened accross the mummy.

Hans Kammerlander and Reinhold Messner with the Iceman
They uncovered the corpse and lifted its head for the first time exposing parts of the mummy's clothing. When the pair looked for further objects, they discovered the remains of birch bark containers, a bow, and part of a quiver strut.

The Iceman's Birch Bark Containers
An Austrian television crew arrived at the Tisenjoch two days later, on September 23, 1991, the same day as the official recovery of the body.

Thank You Mr. Sedivy from Highlands Ranch High School